Raynaud’s (ray-NOSE) disease causes some areas of your body — together with your hands and feet — to experience numb and cold in response to cold temperatures or pressure. In Raynaud’s disease, smaller arteries that deliver blood to your skin emerge as slim, limiting blood drift to affected areas (vasospasm).
Women are more likely than men to have Raynaud’s disease, also known as Raynaud’s or Raynaud’s phenomenon or syndrome. It appears to be more common in individuals who live in less warm climates.
Treatment of Raynaud’s disease depends on its severity and whether or not you have other health conditions. For most of the people, Raynaud’s disease isn’t always disabling, however it is able to have an effect on your quality of life.
Symptoms of Raynaud’s disease
Signs and signs of Raynaud’s disease include:
- Cold fingers or feat
- Color changes in your skin in reaction to cold or stress
- Numb, prickly feeling or stinging ache upon warming or pressure alleviation
During an attack of Raynaud’s, affected areas of your skin usually first flip white. Then, they normally turn blue and feel cold and numb. As you warm and your circulate improves, the affected areas can also turn red, throb, tingle or swell.
Although Raynaud’s most generally affects your palms and feet, it is able to also affect different regions of your body, along with your nostril, lips, ears and even nipples. After you heat up, the return of everyday blood drift to the place can take 15 minutes.
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When to see a doctor
See your doctor right away if you have a history of intense Raynaud’s and expand a sore or infection in one among your affected fingers or feet.
Causes of Raynaud’s disease
Doctors do not absolutely apprehend the causes of Raynaud’s attack, but blood vessels in the fingers and feat appear to overreact to cold temperatures or stress.
1). Blood vessels in spasm
With Raynaud’s, arteries for your fingers and feet emerge as slender and briefly restrict blood supply while uncovered to cold or stress. Over time, those small arteries can thicken slightly, in addition restricting blood go with the flow.
Cold temperatures are most probably to cause an attack. Exposure to cold, such as placing your fingers in cold water, taking something from a freezer or being in cold air, is the most probably cause. For some people, emotional stress can trigger an episode.
2). Primary vs. Secondary Raynaud’s
There are 2 main kinds of the situation.
Primary Raynaud’s. Also known as Raynaud’s disease, this most common form is not the result of a related medical situation. It may be so slight that many people with primary Raynaud’s don’t trying to find treatment. And it could solve on its own.
Secondary Raynaud’s. Also known as Raynaud’s phenomenon, this form is resulting from an underlying hassle. Although secondary Raynaud’s is much less common than the primary form, it tends to be more critical.
Signs and symptoms of secondary Raynaud’s generally seem around age 40, later than they do for primary Raynaud’s.
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Causes of secondary Raynaud’s include the following:
Connective tissue diseases: Most people who’ve an extraordinary disease that ends in hardening and scarring of the skin (scleroderma) have Raynaud’s. Other diseases that increase the chance of Raynaud’s include lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren’s syndrome.
Diseases of the arteries: These include a buildup of plaques in blood vessels that feed the heart, a disease in which the blood vessels of the hands and toes end up inflamed, and a form of excessive blood pressure that affects the arteries of the lungs.
Carpal tunnel syndrome: This circumstance entails stress on a chief nerve in your hand, producing numbness and pain in the hand that may make the hand more susceptible to cold temperatures.
Repetitive movement or vibration: Typing, gambling piano or doing comparable movements for lengthy durations and working vibrating gear, which include jackhammers, can cause overuse injuries.
Smoking: Smoking constricts blood vessels.
Injuries to the arms or feet: Examples encompass a wrist fracture, surgical procedure or frostbite.
Certain medications: These encompass beta blockers for excessive blood strain, migraine medications that include ergotamine and sumatriptan, interest-deficit/hyperactivity disease medicines, certain chemotherapy agents, and drugs that cause blood vessels to slim, together with a few over the counter bloodless medicines.
Risk factors of Raynaud’s disease
Risk factors for primary Raynaud’s include:
- Sex: More women than men are affected.
- Age: Although all and sundry can broaden the situation, number one Raynaud’s often begins between the ages of 15 and 30.
- Climate: The disease is also more common in folks that stay in colder climates.
- Family history: A first-degree relative — a discern, sibling or child — having the disease seems to increase your chance of primary Raynaud’s.
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Risk factors for secondary Raynaud’s consist of:
- Associated diseases: These encompass situations consisting of scleroderma and lupus.
- Certain occupations: These include jobs that cause repetitive trauma, such as running equipment that vibrate.
- Exposure to certain materials: This includes smoking, taking medications that affect the blood vessels and being uncovered to certain chemical substances, consisting of vinyl chloride.
Complications of Raynaud’s disease
If secondary Raynaud’s is severe — that’s rare — decreased blood drift on your palms or feat could cause tissue damage.
An absolutely blocked artery can cause sores (skin ulcers) or dead tissue, each of which can be tough to deal with. Rarely, severe untreated instances might require casting off the affected part of your body.
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Prevention of Raynaud’s disease
To assist prevent Raynaud’s attack:
Bundle up outdoors: When it’s cold, don a hat, headscarf, socks and boots, and layers of mittens or gloves before you pass outdoor. Wear a coat with comfortable cuffs to head round your mittens or gloves, to save you cold air from attaining your arms.
Also use chemical hand heaters. Wear earmuffs and a face masks if the end of your nose and your earlobes are sensitive to cold.
Warm your automobile: Run your car heater for a few minutes before using in cold climate.
Take precautions indoors: Wear socks. When taking food out of the refrigerator or freezer, wear gloves, mittens or oven mitts. Some people locate it beneficial to put on mittens and socks to bed in the course of iciness.
Because air conditioning can cause attack, set your air conditioner to a warmer temperature. Use insulated drinking glasses.
Diagnosis of Raynaud’s disease
Your physician will ask about your signs and medical history and perform a physical examination. Your health practitioner might also order tests to rule out different medical issues that could cause similar symptoms.
Sorting out primary vs. Secondary Raynaud’s
To inform the distinction among primary and secondary Raynaud’s, your physician would possibly do a check known as nailfold capillaroscopy. During the test, the doctor looks on the skin at the base of your fingernail under a microscope or magnifier to search for deformities or swelling of the tiny blood vessels.
If your physician thinks that another circumstance, including an autoimmune disease or a connective tissue disease, may be causing Raynaud’s, he or she will be able to probably order blood exams, which include:
Antinuclear antibodies test: Testing positive for these antibodies might be a signal of an inspired immune system, common in people who have connective tissue disease or other autoimmune problems.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate; This test found the rate at which red blood cells settle to the lowest of a tube. A quicker than normal rate would possibly signal an underlying inflammatory or autoimmune disorder.
No one blood check can diagnose Raynaud’s. Your medical doctor may order other assessments, such as those that rule out sicknesses of the arteries, to help pinpoint a situation that can be associated with Raynaud’s.
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Treatment of Raynaud’s disease
Dressing for the cold in layers and wearing gloves or heavy socks commonly are powerful in handling slight signs and symptoms of Raynaud’s. Medications are to be had to deal with greater-excessive kinds of the circumstance. The dreams of treatment are to:
- Reduce the number and severity of attacks
- Prevent tissue damage
- Treat the underlying sickness or circumstance
Depending on the cause of your signs and symptoms, medications might help. To widen blood vessels and growth blood float, your medical doctor might prescribe:
Calcium channel blockers: These drug free up and open small blood vessels in your arms and feat, decreasing the severity and number of attacks in the majority with Raynaud’s. These pills can also help heal skin ulcers for your arms or toes. Examples consist of nifedipine (Adalat CC, Procardia), amlodipine (Norvasc), felodipine and isradipine.
Vasodilators: These drug, which free up blood vessels, encompass nitroglycerin cream (Nitro-Dur) implemented to the bottom of your arms to assist heal skin ulcers. Other vasodilators include the excessive blood strain drug losartan (Cozaar), the erectile dysfunction medicinal drug sildenafil (Viagra, Revatio), the antidepressant fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem) and a class of medicines referred to as prostaglandins.
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Surgeries and clinical procedures
If you have got extreme Raynaud’s, your health practitioner can also recommend surgical procedure or injections.
- Nerve surgical: Sympathetic nerves to your hands and feet control the hole and narrowing of blood vessels to your skin. Cutting those nerves interrupts their exaggerated responses.
Through small incisions in the affected palms or feet, a doctor strips those tiny nerves across the blood vessels. This surgical treatment, if successful, may result in fewer and shorter attacks.
- Chemical injection: Doctors can inject chemical compounds which includes local anesthetics or onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) to block sympathetic nerves in affected hands or toes. You would possibly need to have the technique repeated if signs and symptoms go back or persist.
Lifestyle and home remedies
A kind of steps can decrease Raynaud’s attacks and assist you feel better.
- Avoid smoke: Smoking or inhaling secondhand smoke causes skin temperature to drop by tightening blood vessels, that may result in an attack.
- Exercise: Exercise can increase movement, among different health benefits. If you’ve got secondary Raynaud’s, communicate to your medical doctor before exercise exterior in the cold.
- Control stress: Learning to recognize and keep away from stressful conditions may assist control the range of attack.
- Avoid swiftly changing temperatures: Try not to move from a hot environment to an air-conditioned room. If possible, keep away from frozen-food sections of grocery stores.
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What to do during attack
Warm your palms, feet or other affected regions. To gently warm your palms and toes:
- Get indoors or to a hotter place
- Wiggle your hands and toes
- Place palms under armpits
- Make wide circles (windmills) along with your hands
- Run warm — not hot — water over your arms and feet
- Massage your palms and feet
If stress triggers an attack, get out of the worrying state of affairs and rest. Practice a stress-relieving approach that works for you, and heat your fingers or toes in water to help lessen the attack.
Lifestyle changes and dietary supplements that inspire higher blood drift might help you manage Raynaud’s. However, it is uncertain how well these measures may work for Raynaud’s. More research is needed. If you are fascinated, talk to your medical doctor about:
- Fish oil: Taking fish oil dietary supplements may need to assist improve your tolerance to cold.
- Ginkgo: Ginkgo supplements should help decrease the wide variety of Raynaud’s attacks.
- Acupuncture: This exercise seems to improve blood flow, so it is able to be beneficial in relieving Raynaud’s attack.
- Biofeedback: Using your thoughts to govern body temperature may assist decrease the severity and range of attacks you experience. Biofeedback consists of guided imagery to increase the temperature of palms and feet, deep breathe, and other rest exercises.
Your health practitioner may be able to indicate a therapist who will let you examine biofeedback strategies. There are books and videos at the theme.
Talk to your physician before taking supplements. Your doctor can warn you if there are capability drug interactions or side effects opportunity treatments.
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Raynaud phenomenon manifests as recurrent vasospasm of the arms and feet and typically happens in reaction to stress or cold publicity. The phenomenon is known as for Maurice Raynaud, who, as a medical student, defined the first case in 1862 as “episodic, symmetric, acral vasospasm characterized by pallor, cyanosis, suffusion, and a feel of fullness or tautness, which can be painful.”